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Aakerstedt, T. (1994). Work injuries and time of day: National data. Symposium on Work Hours, Sleepiness and Accident. Stockholm: Sweden.

Aiken, L. H. (2002). Evidence of our instincts: An interview with Linda H. Aiken. Nursing Economics, 20(2), 58–61.

Aiken, L. H., Clarke, S. P., Sloane, D. M., Sochalski, J. A., Busse, R., Clarke, H., et al. (2001). Nurses' reports on hospital care in five countries. Health Affairs, 20(3), 43–53.

Aiken, L. H., Havens, D. S. & Sloane, D. M. (2000). The magnet nursing services recognition program. American Journal of Nursing, 100(3), 26–35.

Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Lake, E. T., Sochalski, J. & Weber, A. L. (1999). Organization and outcomes of inpatient AIDS care. Medical Care, 37(8), 760–772.

Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M. & Sochalski, J. (1998). Hospital organization and outcomes. Quality in Health Care, 7(4), 222–226.

Aiken, L. H., Smith, H. L. & Lake, E. T. (1994). Lower Medicare mortality among a set of hospitals known for good nursing care. Medical Care, 32(8), 771–787.

Aiken, L. H., Sochalski, J. & Lake, E. T. (1997). Studying outcomes of organizational change in health services. Medical Care, 35(11 Suppl.), NS6–NS18.

Allen, J. J. (1999). Intensive care nurses: post-traumatic stress disorder-like symptomatology (Doctoral dissertation, Loma Linda University, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 2328.

Alward, R. R. & Monk, T. H. (1993). The Nurse's Shift Work Handbook. Washington, DC: American Nurses Publishing.

American Academy of Nursing. Task Force on Nursing Practice in Hospitals. (1983). Magnet hospitals: Attraction and retention of professional nurses. Kansas City, MO: ANA Publishing.

American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. (2001, April 24). Staffing Shortages and Lack of Respect Cited as Top Concern in AFSCME Nurses Survey: Union Representation Viewed as Beneficial [AFSCME News Release]. 

American Federation of Teachers/Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals. (2000). Legislation to ban mandatory overtime: State initiatives and federal principles. Washington, DC: Author.

American Federation of Teachers/Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals. (2001). Mandatory Overtime Survey. Washington, DC: Author. 

American Federation of Teachers/Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals. (2001). The nurse shortage—perspectives from current direct care nurses and former direct care nurses: An opinion research study conducted by Peter D. Hart Research Associates on behalf of the Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals. Washington, DC: Author. 

American Federation of Teachers/Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals. (2001). Stopping the clock: Controlling the use of mandatory overtime in the health care industry. Washington, DC: Author. 

American Hospital Association. Commission on Workforce for Hospitals and Health Systems. (2002). In our hands: How hospital leaders can build a thriving workforce. Washington, DC: American Hospital Association.

American Nurses Association. (2001). Analysis of American Nurses Association staffing survey. Warwick, RI: Cornerstone Communications Group.

American Nurses Association. (1997). Implementing nursing's report card: A study of RN staffing, length of stay and patient outcomes. Washington, DC: ANA Publishing.

American Organization of Nurse Executives. (1988). Conference on nursing shortage and strategies. Washington, DC: Author.

American Organization of Nurse Executives. (1996). The business of nursing. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. American Organization of Nurse Executives. (2000). Perspectives on the nursing shortage: A blueprint for action. Washington, DC: Author.

American Organization of Nurse Executives. (2002). Acute care hospital survey of RN vacancy and turnover rates. Washington, DC: Author.

Arnow, P. M., Allyn, P. A., Nichols, E. M., Hill, D. L., Pezzlo, M. & Bartlett, R. H. (1982). Control of methichillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in a burn unit: Role of nurse staffing. Journal of Trauma, 22(11), 954–59.

Baker, K., Olson, J. & Morisseau, D. (1994). Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance. Human Factors, 36(2), 244–57.

Barnett, R. C., Gareis, K. C. & Brennan, R. T. (1999). Fit as a mediator of the relationship between work hours and burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 307–317.

Bates, D. W., Spell, N., Cullen, D. J., Burdick, E., Laird, N., Petersen, L. A., Small, S. D., Sweitzer, B. J. & Leape, L. L. (1997). The costs of adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. JAMA, 277(4), 307–311.

Behner, K. G., Fogg, L. F., Fournier, L. C., Frankenbach, J. T. & Robertson, S. B. (1990). Nursing resource management: Analyzing the relationship between costs and quality in staffing decisions. Health Care Management Review, 15(4), 63–71.

Berens, M. (2000, September 10). Nursing mistakes kill, injure thousands. Chicago Tribune, p. C20.

Blegen, M. A. (1993). Nurses' job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of related variables. Nursing Research, 42(1), 36–41.

Blegen, M. A., Goode, C. J. & Reed, L. (1998). Nurse staffing and patient outcomes. Nursing Research, 47(1), 43–50.

Blegen, M. A. & Vaughn, T. (1998). A multisite study of nurse staffing and patient occurrences. Nursing Economics, 16(4), 196–203.

Boodman, S.G. (2001, March 27) Your doctor is a rookie: He's been on duty more than 30 hours. Washington Post, p. H1.

Bosek, M. S. (2001). Mandatory overtime: Professional duty, harms, and justice. Journal of Nursing Administration, 3(4), 99–102.

Buerhaus, P. I. (1995). Economic pressures building in the hospital employed RN labor market. Nursing Economics, 13(3), 137–141.

Buerhaus, P. I. (1998). Is a nursing shortage on the way? Nursing, 28(8), 34–35.

Buerhaus, P. I. (2002). Shortages of hospital registered nurses: Causes and perspectives on public and private sector actions. Nursing Outlook, 50(1), 4–6.

Buerhaus, P. I., Donelan, K., DesRoches, C., Lamkin, L. & Mallory, G. (2001). State of the oncology nursing workforce: Problems and implications for strengthening the future. Nursing Economics, 19(5), 198–208.

Buerhaus, P. I. & Staiger, D. O. (1999). Trouble in the nurse labor market? Recent trends and future outlook. Health Affairs, 18(1), 214–222.

Buerhaus, P. I., Staiger, D. O. & Auerbach, D. I. (2000). Implications of an aging registered nurse workforce. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(22), 2948–2954.

Buerhaus, P. I., Staiger, D. O. & Auerbach, D. I. (2000). Policy responses to an aging registered nurse workforce. Nursing Economics, 18(6), 278–.

Bush, J. P. (1988). Job satisfaction, powerlessness and locus of control. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 10(6), 718–731.

California Nurses Association. (n.d.) Frequently asked questions about California's new ratios law. 

California Nurses Association. (n.d.) Improved RN-to-patient staffing protects patient safety.

California Nurses Association (n.d.) Ratios to halt RN exodus.

Cameron, K. S., Freeman, S. J. & Mishra, A. K. (1993). Downsizing and redesigning organizations. In G. P. Huber & W. H. Glick (Eds.), Organizational change and redesign. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cheng, Y., Kawachi, I., Coakley, E., Schwartz, J., & Colditz, G. (2000). Association between psychological work characteristics and health functioning in American women: Prospective study. British Medical Journal, 320(7247), 1432–1436.

Clarke, S. P., Sloane, D. M. & Aiken, L. H. (2002). Effects of hospital staffing and organizational climate on needlestick injuries to nurses. American Journal of Public Health, 92(7), 1115–1119.

Dolan, N. (1987). The relationship between burnout and job satisfaction in nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(12), 3–12.

Duchon, J.C., Keran, C. M. & Smith, T. J. (1994). Extended workdays in an underground mine: A work performance analysis. Human Factors, 36(2), 258–69.

Dugan, J., Lauer, Z., Bougquot, Z., Dutro, B. Smith, M. & Widmeyer, G. (1996). Stressful nurses: the effect on patient outcomes. Journal of Nursing Care and Quality, 10(3), 46–58.

Fenwick, R. & Tausig, M. (2001). Scheduling stress, family and health outcomes of shift work and schedule control. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(7), 1179–1198.

First Consulting Group. (2001). The healthcare workforce shortage and its implications for America's hospitals. Long Beach, CA: Author. 

Fletcher, C. E. (2001). Hospital RNs' job satisfactions and dissatisfactions. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(6), 324–331.

Flood, S. D. & Diers, D. (1988). Nurse staffing, patient outcome and cost. Nursing Management, 19(5), 34–43.

Foley, M. (2002, March 7). Statement of the American Nurses Association for the Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Health, regarding improving patient safety. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association. 

Foundation for Healthy Communities. (2001). New Hampshire nurses speak out: Work and career concerns. [The full study has not yet been published.]

Gander, P. H., Merry, A., Millar, M. M. & Weller, J. (2000). Hours of work and fatigue-related error: a survey of New Zealand anaesthetists. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 28(2), 178–83.

Golden, L. & Jorgensen, H. (2002). Time after time: Mandatory overtime in the U.S. economy. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.

Goodell, T. T. & Coeling, H. V. (1994). Outcomes of nurses' job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Administration, 24(11), 36–41.

Gordon, A. B. (2002, June). Success story: No nursing shortage here. Continuous Improvement, 15.

Grady, D. (2002, May 30). Shortage of nurses hurts patient care, study finds. New York Times, p. A14.

Greiner, A. (1996). Impacts of hospital restructuring on nursing [Economic Policy Institute Technical Paper No. 210]. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. 

Hanecke, K., Tiedemann, S., Nachreiner, F. & Grzech-Sukalo, H. (1998). Accident risk as a function of hour at work and time of day as determined from accident data and exposure models for the German working population. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 24(Suppl. 3), 43–48.

Havens, D. S. (2001). Comparing nursing infrastructure and outcomes: ANCC magnet and nonmagnet CNEs report. Nursing Economics, 19(6), 258–266.

Health workforce: Nursing staff shortages worsening, survey by New York hospitals finds. (2002, April 24). Health Plan & Provider Report.

Hinshaw, A. S. (2001). A continuing challenge: The shortage of educationally prepared nursing faculty. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 6(1), manuscript #3.

Hinshaw, A. S. & Atwood, J. R. (1984). Nursing staff turnover, stress, and satisfaction: Models, measures, and management. In H. H. Werley & J. J. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Annual Review of Nursing Research, Vol. 1., 133–153. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

The hospital workforce shortage: Immediate and future. (2001, July). Trendwatch, 3(2), 1–6.

Institute for Health & Socio-Economic Policy (2001). AB 394: California and the demand for safe and effective nurse to patient staffing ratios. Orinda, CA: Author.

Irvine, D. M. & Evans, M. G. (1995). Job satisfaction and turnover among nurses: Integrating research findings across studies. Nursing Research, 44(4), 246–253.

Jackson, F. E. C. (1988). Measuring the burnout of Michigan hospice nurses (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International 50, 904.

Kawachi, I., Colditz, G., Stampfer, M., Willett, W., Manson, J., Speizer, F., & Hennekens, C. (1995). Prospective study of shift work and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation, 42(11), 3178–3182.

Kogi, K. (1991). Job content and working time: The scope for joint change. Ergonomics, 34(6), 757–773.

Kohn, L. T., Corrigan, J. M. & Donaldson, M. S. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Kramer, M. & Hafner, L. P. (1989). Shared values: Impact on staff nurse job satisfaction and perceived productivity. Nursing Research, 38(3), 172–177.

Krantz, L. & Lee, T. (2000). The jobs rated almanac 2001. New York: St. Martin's Griffin.

Laschinger, H. K. S. & Havens, D. S. (1996). Staff nurse work empowerment and perceived control over nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Administration, 26(9), 27–35.

Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J. & Shamian, J. (1999, April). Impact of workplace empowerment on staff nurse organizational trust, job tension, and organizational commitment and work satisfaction: Testing Kanter's theory of organizational empowerment. Paper presented at the Midwest Nursing Research Society 23rd Annual Research Conference, Indianapolis, IN.

Laschinger, H. K. S. Shamian, J. & Thomson, D. (2001). Impact of magnet hospital characteristics on nurses' perceptions of trust, burnout, quality of care, and work satisfaction. Nursing Economics, 19(5).

Laschinger, H. K. S., Sabiston, J. A., Finegan, J. & Shamian, J. (2001). Voices from the trenches: Nurses' experiences of hospital restructuring in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 14(1), 6. 

Legislation would establish minimum workday and work week at health care facilities. (2001, January 31). News from the [Rhode Island] General Assembly [press release]. Providence, RI.

Leiter, M. P., Harvie, P. & Frizzell, C. (1998). The correspondence of patient satisfaction and nurse burnout. Social Science & Medicine, 47(10), 1611–1617.

Martens, M. F. J., Nijhuis, F. J. N., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., & Knottnerus, J. A. (1999). Flexible work schedules and mental and physical health: A study of a working population with non-traditional working hours. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(1), 35–46.

Massachusetts Nurses Association wins a 1 to 5 nurse-patient ratio in contract (1997). New Jersey Nurse 27(1), 11.

Mattick, T. (1999, August). Reserve rest requirements. Air Line Pilot, 68(7), 17.

McCloskey, J. C. (1990). Two requirements for job contentment: Autonomy and social integration. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 22(3) 140–143.

McCranie, E. W., Lambert, V. A. & Lambert, C. E., Jr. (1987). Work stress, hardiness, and burnout among hospital staff nurses. Nursing Research, 36(6), 374–378.

Minnesota Department of Health. (2001). Magnet hospitals: A positive approach to Minnesota's nursing shortage. St. Paul, MN: Author.

MNA Labor Cabinet helps draft federal proposal: Bill would ban mandatory overtime for health care workers. (2000, October/November). MassNurse News, n.p.

Murray, M. K. (2002). The nursing shortage: Past, present and future. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32(2), 79–84.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (1999). Stress at work. Cincinnati, OH: Author.

National Opinion Research Center. (1999, March 15). General social survey, data information and retrieval system.

Needleman, J., Buerhaus, P., Mattke, S., Stewart, M. & Zelevinsky, K. (2001). Nurse staffing and patient outcomes in hospitals. Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public Health.

Needleman, J., Buerhaus, P., Mattke, S., Stewart, M., & Zelevinsky, K. (2002). Nurse-staffing levels and the quality of care in hospitals. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(22), 1715–1722.

Nevidjon, B. & Erickson, J. I. (2001, January 31). The nursing shortage: Solutions for the short and long term. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 6(1), manuscript #4.

Norris, S. (2002, April 8). Nursing shortages. Health policy tracking service issue brief. Available at

Nursing Executive Center. (2000). Reversing the flight of talent: Nursing retention in an era of gathering shortage. Washington, DC: The Advisory Board Company.

Nursing Executive Center. (2001). Becoming a chief retention officer. Washington, DC: The Advisory Board Company.

O'Leary, D. S. (2002). Framing the issues: In pursuit of solutions to the national nursing workforce dilemma: Presentation to the Nurse Staffing Roundtable. Washington, DC: Nurse Staffing Roundtable.

Peterson, C. A. (2001). Nursing shortage: Not a simple problem—no easy answers. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 6(1), manuscript#1. 

Pilcher, J. & Huffcut, A. (1996). Effects of sleep deprivation on performance: A meta-analysis. Sleep, 19(4), 318–326.

Pindus, N. M. & Grenier, A. (1997). The effects of health care industry changes on health care workers and quality of patient care: Summary of literature and research. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Proctor, S. P., White, R. F., Robins, T. G., Echeverria, D. & Rocskay, A. Z. (1996). Effect of overtime work on cognitive function in automotive workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 22(2): 124–32.

Rafferty, A. M., Ball, J. & Aiken, L. H. (2001). Are teamwork and professional autonomy compatible, and do they result in improved hospital care? Quality in Health Care, 10(Suppl. 2), ii32–ii37.

Richmond, E. (2002, February 19). Nursing shortage blamed on hospital working conditions. Las Vegas Sun, p. 2.

Risher, P. & Appelbaum, S. (2002). NurseWeek/American Organization of Nurse Executives national survey of registered nurses. Sunnyvale, CA.: NurseWeek.

Roberts, W. C. (2000). Luz Remedios ("Remy") Tolentino, RN, MSN, Baylor's chief nurse: A conversation with the editor. BUMC Proceedings, 13(2): 169–174. 

Robinson, S., Roth, S., Keim, J., Levenson, M., Flentje, J. & Bashor, K. (1991). Nurse burnout: Work related and demographic culprits. Research on Nursing Health, 14(3): 223–228.

Rosa, R.R. (1995). Extended workshifts and excessive fatigue. Journal of Sleep Research, 4(Suppl. 2): 51–56.

Russell, B., Ehrenkranz, N. J., Hyams, P. J. & Gribble, C. A. (1983). An outbreak of staphylococcus aureus surgical wound infection associated with excess overtime employment of operating room personnel. American Journal of Infection Control, 11(2): 63–67.

Schuster, M. & Rhodes, S. (1985). The impact of overtime work on industrial accident rates. Industrial Relations, 24(2), 234–246..

Scott, J. G., Sochalski, J. & Aiken, L. (1999). Review of magnet hospital research: Findings and implications for professional nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Administration, 29(1), 9–19.

Seago, J. A. (2002). The California experiment: Alternatives for minimum nurse-to-patient ratios. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32(1), 48–58.

Seago, J. A. & Ash, M. (2002). Registered nurse unions and patient outcomes. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32(3), 143–151.

Shields, M. (1999). Long working hours and health. Health Reporter, 11(2): 33–48.

Shindul-Rothschild, J., Berry, D. & Long-Middleton, E. (1996). Where have all the nurses gone? Final results of our patient care survey. American Journal of Nursing, 96(11), 25–39.

Smith, M.L. (1996). Mandatory overtime and quality of life in the 1990s. Journal of Corporation Law, 21(3): 599–622.

Sokejima, S. & Kagamimori, S. (1998). Working hours as a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction in Japan: Case-control study. British Medical Journal, 317(7161), 775–780.

Sparks, K., Cooper, C., Fried, Y. & Shirom, A. (1997). The effects of hours of work on health: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 70(4): 391–408.

Spratley, E., Johnson, A., Sochalski, J., Fritz, M. & Spencer, W. (2001). The registered nurse population, March 2000: Findings from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions, Division of Nursing.

Spurgeon, A., Harrington, J. M. & Cooper, C. L. (1997). Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: A review of the current position. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54(6), 364–375.

Steinbrook, R. (2002) Nursing in the crossfire. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(22), 1757–1766.

Stratton, T. D., Dunkin, J. W., Juhl, N. & Geller, J. M. (1995). Retainment incentives in three rural practice settings: Variations in job satisfaction among staff registered nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 8(2), 73–80.

Tumulty, G., Jernigan, I. E. & Kohut, G. F. (1994). The impact of perceived work environment on job satisfaction of hospital staff nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 7(2), 84–90.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002, February 22) Bush Administration promotes careers in nursing: Survey shows critical shortage of nurses [Press Release]. Washington, DC.

U.S. General Accounting Office. (2001). Nursing workforce: Emerging nurse shortages due to multiple factors, report to the chairman, Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives [GAO-01–922]. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. General Accounting Office. (2001). Nursing workforce; multiple factors create nurse recruitment and retention problems, statement of Janet Heinrich, Director, Health Care—Public Health Issues, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate [GAO-01–912T]. Washington, DC: Author.

Weisman, C. S. & Nathanson, C. A. (1985). Professional satisfaction and client outcomes: A comparative organizational analysis. Medical Care, 23(10), 1179–1192.

Williamson, A. M. & Feyer, A. M. (2000). Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(10), 649–55.

Worthington, K. (2001). The health risks of mandatory overtime: The hidden costs of this all-too-common practice. American Journal of Nursing, 101(5), 96.

Wunderlich, G. S., Sloan, F. & Davis, C. K. (Eds.) (1996). Nursing staff in hospitals and nursing homes: Is it adequate? Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

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